The self-assessment grid of the language passport of the ELP is based mainly on the descriptors of communicative language activities. In classroom practice, however, vocabulary and grammar, rather than these communicative activities, are perceived as the main objectives of teaching and learning, since learners are aware of them as two explicit constituents of language competence. This contradiction needs to be addressed. What is the relationship, in language use as well as in language learning, between grammar and vocabulary and communicative activities? How does one learn each of them? Can one of them be acquired while learning the other one?